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If any one “point the finger” (slander) at a sister of a god or the wife of any one, and can not prove it, this man shall be taken before the judges and his brow shall be marked. If any one ensnare another, putting a ban upon him, but he can not prove it, then he that ensnared him shall be put to death. Then ( Log Out /  108. If a free person who has borrowed cannot repay the loan with silver but 149. 45. If any one agree with another to tend his field, give him seed, entrust a yoke of oxen to him, and bind him to cultivate the field, if he steal the corn or plants, and take them for himself, his hands shall be hewn off. 152. 213. If a fire breaks out in a free person's house and another free person The Code of Hammurabi at Sacred-texts.com, L.W. If a man adopt a son, and if after he has taken him he injure his foster father and mother, then this adopted son shall return to his father’s house. If a merchant give an agent corn, wool, oil, or any other goods to transport, the agent shall give a receipt for the amount, and compensate the merchant therefor. 137. If a . The trade portion of Hammurabi’s Code also gives weight to the “eye for an eye” mentality that the Code is so famously known for. 240. The Code of Hammurabi (also known as the Codex Hammurabi and Hammurabi’s Code), created ca. If his son is still young, and can not take possession, a third of the field and garden shall be given to his mother, and she shall bring him up. 120. the carpenter shall provide an equivalent slave for the homeowner. If a man has stolen goods from a temple, or house, he shall be put to death; and he that has received the stolen property from him shall be put to death. Then the house of her first husband shall be entrusted to the second husband and the woman herself as managers. must pay her a settlement equal to the value of the gifts he gave her father 30. Displaying top 8 worksheets found for - Code Of Hammurabi. If he do not receive a fixed rental for his field, but lets it on half or third shares of the harvest, the grain on the field shall be divided proportionately between the tiller and the owner. Audience The codes were intended for everyone in the community. If a man be guilty of incest with his daughter, he shall be driven from the place (exiled). If a “sister of a god,” or a prostitute, receive a gift from her father, and a deed in which it has been explicitly stated that she may dispose of it as she pleases, and give her complete disposition thereof: if then her father die, then she may leave her property to whomsoever she pleases. 38. 14. The verdicts could be very harsh indeed, and Columbia University professor Marc van de Mieroop notes in his book \"King Hammurabi of Babylon\" (Blackwell Publishing, 2005) that the death penalty is listed as punishment no fewer than 30 times. be done. 88. Hammurabi also established a set of laws that is today called the Code of Hammurabi. 112. The field, garden, and house return to their owners. If a free person signs a contract to rent a field for cultivation but . 229. If a man practices robbery and is captured, that man shall be put to death. 190. If while an ox is passing on the street (market) some one push it, and kill it, the owner can set up no claim in the suit (against the hirer). First, Hammurabi’s laws were based on the harsh “eye for eye and a life for a life” mentality, ending in a death penalty for many slight offenses. fails to raise a crop in the field, that person must pay the landlord an amount the contract shall be changed so that person will not owe the creditor any 276. shall be put to death. interest for the year. If any one bring an accusation against a man, and the ac- cused go to the river and leap into the river, if he sink in the river his … Laws Concerning Social Structures196. a temple or palace, that person shall repay thirty times the amount of the If any one ensnare another, putting a ban upon him, but he can not prove it, then he that ensnared him shall be put to death. 48. so that the strong should not oppress the weak, and to rise like Shamash to by name for the welfare of the people: To cause justice to appear in the world, to destroy the evil and the wicked If the first wife and a female slave of a free man both bear him sons, The legal code was a common feature of the legal systems of the ancient Middle East. 275. 142. 150. 173. 278. 196. 163. If the animal be killed in the stable by God ( an accident), or if a lion kill it, the herdsman shall declare his innocence before God, and the owner bears the accident in the stable. If a man adopt a child and to his name as son, and rear him, this grown son can not be demanded back again. 133. If the man does not wish to divorce her, he may 27. If the robber is not caught, then shall he who was robbed claim under oath the amount of his loss; then shall the community, and . 192. 157. Analysis Sarrah Livson October 3, 2017 Prof. Rockenbach Pd 6 Hammurabi's Codes Author The author of this text is the ruler of Babylon of the time, Hammurabi. that person shall be executed. 227. If his father-in-law do not pay back to him the amount of the “purchase price” he may subtract the amount of the “Purchase price” from the dowry, and then pay the remainder to her father’s house. 193. Her brothers can raise no claim thereto. The Code of Hammurabi; Introduction by Charles F. Horne; The Code of Hammurabi by Claude Herman Walter Johns If conspirators meet in the house of a tavern-keeper, and these conspirators are not captured and delivered to the court, the tavern-keeper shall be put to death. [Here a portion of the text is missing, apparently comprising thirty-four paragraphs.]. 20. 182. If a free person accuses a priestess or a married woman of illicit sexual If this maid-servant die, he shall pay one-third of a mina. In addition, the renter who has neglected the field must plough it, so If any one be surprised after his father with his chief wife, who has borne children, he shall be driven out of his father’s house. 167. If any one steal cattle or sheep, or an ass, or a pig or a goat, if it belong to a god or to the court, the thief shall pay thirtyfold therefor; if they belonged to a freed man of the king he shall pay tenfold; if the thief has nothing with which to pay he shall be put to death. Let these curses be unalterable, and let them quickly overtake the kings Then he shall obtain a receipt form the merchant for the money that he gives the merchant. [ A tooth for a tooth ]. 225. 253. If the rent was not paid in advance, the renter and the cultivator shall If any one buy a male or female slave, and before a month has elapsed the benu-disease be developed, he shall return the slave to the seller, and receive the money which he had paid. The Code of Hammurabi at Sacred-texts.com, L.W. If the owner do not bring witnesses to identify the lost article, he is an evil-doer, he has traduced, and shall be put to death. 45. 165. 197. was created by Hammurabi, the sixth King of Babylon. 281. 16. (by cutting the skin, or perhaps hair.). And he shall lose whatever commission was paid to him, or due him. 254. The Code of Hammurabi is a well-preserved Babylonian law code, dating back to about 1772 BC.It is one of the oldest deciphered writings of significant length in the world. I am the shepherd who brings well-being and abundant prosperity; my rule If a “sister of a god” open a tavern, or enter a tavern to drink, then shall this woman be burned to death. If a shepherd, without the permission of the owner of the field, and without the knowledge of the owner of the sheep, lets the sheep into a field to graze, then the owner of the field shall harvest his crop, and the shepherd, who had pastured his flock there without permission of the owner of the field, shall pay to the owner twenty gur of corn for every ten gan. 256. If a thief cannot pay, that If a tavern-keeper (feminine) does not accept corn according to gross weight in payment of drink, but takes money, and the price of the drink is less than that of the corn, she shall be convicted and thrown into the water. Then she may marry the man of her heart. 46. If a chieftain or a man leave his house, garden, and field and hires it out, and some one else takes possession of his house, garden, and field and uses it for three years: if the first owner return and claims his house, garden, and field, it shall not be given to him, but he who has taken possession of it and used it shall continue to use it. 279. property, the carpenter shall replace whatever has been destroyed; if the 50. 42. . If a man betroth a girl to his son, but his son has not known her, and if then he defile her, he shall pay her half a gold mina, and compensate her for all that she brought out of her father’s house. If any one hire a cart alone, he shall pay forty ka of corn per day. If a chieftain or man be caught in the misfortune of the king (captured in battle), and if his fields and garden be given to another and he take possession, if he return and reaches his place, his field and garden shall be returned to him, he shall take it over again. divide any crops that can be salvaged according to the proportion stipulated 189. 148. 35. in the house, the looter shall be executed by being thrown into that fire. The barber shall swear: “I did not mark him wittingly,” and shall be guiltless. It consists of 282 laws, with scaled punishments, adjusting "an eye for an eye, a tooth for a tooth" (lex talionis) as graded based on social stratification depending on social status and gender, of 242. Department. be paid sixteen grams of silver for every thirty-five square meters of the 258. If he give a cultivated corn-field or a cultivated sesame-field, the corn or sesame in the field shall belong to the owner of the field, and he shall return the money to the merchant as rent. five gerahs, as wages of the potter five gerahs, of a tailor five gerahs, of . 131. not subject to claim. 160. If the agent is careless, and does not take a receipt for the money which he gave the merchant, he can not consider the unreceipted money as his own. If any one who has not lost his goods state that they have been lost, and make false claims: if he claim his goods and amount of injury before God, even though he has not lost them, he shall be fully compensated for all his loss claimed. The code is an early example of a law regulating a government: a kind of primitive constitution. 169. Hammurabi’s Code extends to all aspects of law and includes areas concerning wages; criminal law; and the rights of citizens, even slaves and women. 14. Let the oppressed person stand before my monument and have the precious words If a man violate the wife (betrothed or child-wife) of another man, who has never known a man, and still lives in her father’s house, and sleep with her and be surprised, this man shall be put to death, but the wife is blameless. 205. 230. “If a gentleman accuses another gentleman and files a murder charge against him, but cannot prove it, his accuser will be punished with death”. 218. 175. by paying this settlement he divorces her. 191. If any one give another silver, gold, or anything else to keep, he shall show everything to some witness, draw up a contract, and then hand it over for safe keeping. If he take the seed-corn for himself, and do not use the yoke of oxen, he shall compensate him for the amount of the seed-corn. If any one hire an ox or an ass, and a lion kill it in the field, the loss is upon its owner. If any one receive into his house a runaway male or female slave of the court, or of a freedman, and does not bring it out at the public proclamation of the major domus, the master of the house shall be put to death. 271. If a free person has pawned anything without a contract signed by witnesses, HAMMURABI'S CODE OF LAWS (circa 1780 B.C.) 121. May the kings who listen to my words be blessed with empires as large as 250. Like the laws of today, Hammurabi's Code lays out specific punishments for specific crimes. If a veterinary surgeon perform a serious operation on an ass or an ox, and cure it, the owner shall pay the surgeon one-sixth of a shekel as a fee. . 212. ear of the slave shall be cut off. If any one buy a male or female slave, and a third party claim it, the seller is liable for the claim. This famous set of laws is known as Hammurabi’s Code, a set of 282 laws that were made public for all inhabitants of the empire to know and understand. 146. If a man knock out the teeth of his equal, his teeth shall be knocked out. or even enters a bar for drink, that priestess shall be executed by burning. 28. Hammurabi studied existing rules and put together a single code of law for everyone in his empire to follow. He may, however, assign a field, garden, or house which he has bought, and holds as property, to his wife or daughter or give it for debt. If any one hire a day laborer, he shall pay him from the New Year until the fifth month (April to August, when days are long and the work hard) six gerahs in money per day; from the sixth month to the end of the year he shall give him five gerahs per day. interest for the money, as much as he has received, he shall give a note therefor, and on the day, when they settle, pay to the merchant. If a free person gives shelter to a fugitive slave of either a palace 266. 224. If any one bring an accusation of any crime before the elders, and does not prove what he has charged, he shall, if it be a capital offense charged, be put to death. HAMMURABI'S CODE OF LAWS (circa 1780 B.C.) 251. 104. If a free person puts out the eye or breaks the bone of another free If a man let in the water, and the water overflow the plantation of his neighbor, he shall pay ten gur of corn for every ten gan of land. 135. 270. 9. If the prisoner die in prison from blows or maltreatment, the master of the prisoner shall convict the merchant before the judge. If a man bring chattels into his father-in-law’s house and pay the “purchase price,” if then his friend slander him, and his father-in-law say to the young husband: “You shall not marry my daughter,” the he shall give back to him undiminished all that he had brought with him; but his wife shall not be married to the friend. 55. If the thief is not caught, the city of the free person who has been robbed . of Mesopotamian Documents. 122. 58. Hanover College History King, translator. Like the laws of today, Hammurabi's Code lays out specific punishments for specific crimes. can repay it with grain, the merchant who made the loan is obligated to accept If the wife of a free man is caught lying with another man, they shall 251. forgotten. If he do not till the field, but let it lie fallow, he shall give grain like his neighbor’s to the owner of the field, and the field which he let lie fallow he must plow and sow and return to its owner. 174. If during a quarrel one man strike another and wound him, then he shall swear, “I did not injure him wittingly,” and pay the physicians. . . 22. If a State slave or the slave of a freed man marry the daughter of a free man, and children are born, the master of the slave shall have no right to enslave the children of the free. Gave the rule of human beings to Marduk, set him over all other deities, If a man wish to separate from a woman who has borne him children, or from his wife who has borne him children: then he shall give that wife her dowry, and a part of the usufruct of field, garden, and property, so that she can rear her children. 229 If a builder build a house for some one, and does not construct it properly, and the house which he built fall in and kill its owner, then that builder shall be put to death. This is meant to create equity in the way that punishments are meted out. 109. that person shall pay one-half kilogram of silver. . If a free person wishes to pawn anything, that person is responsible 204. equivalent to the harvests of the adjoining fields. . If a free person's slave strikes the cheek of another free person, the ear of the slave shall be cut off. 255. 228. 234. If he satisfy the elders to impose a fine of grain or money, he shall receive the fine that the action produces. If any one take money from a merchant, and give the merchant a field tillable for corn or sesame and order him to plant corn or sesame in the field, and to harvest the crop; if the cultivator plant corn or sesame in the field, at the harvest the corn or sesame that is in the field shall belong to the owner of the field and he shall pay corn as rent, for the money he received from the merchant, and the livelihood of the cultivator shall he give to the merchant. King, translator The Code of Hammurabi: Hammurabi's Code of Laws: Paragraphs 100-199 Sacred Texts Ancient Near East Index Previous Next If a merchant entrust money to an agent (broker) for some investment, and the broker suffer a loss in the place to which he goes, he shall make good the capital to the merchant. 158. 166. 228. The following are just some of the laws contained in the Code of Hammurabi. The tight boat he shall give to the boat owner. 154. 209. If the free person's ox is a habitual gorer, and the free person has 3. 247. Change ), You are commenting using your Twitter account. Change ), You are commenting using your Facebook account. 210. “If a lord accuses another lord of witchcraft, but cannot prove it, the accused of witchcraft will go to the river and must throw himself into the river. If any one hire an ox, and put out its eye, he shall pay the owner one-half of its value. monument. 113. 59. The… 33. 208. If a physician make a large incision in the slave of a freed man, and kill him, he shall replace the slave with another slave. 126. an inquiry shall be held. Hammurabi believed a CODE OF LAW would help control the empire. 47. If a free man has sexual relations with his mother after the death of made Babylon the foremost city-state in all the earth and the capital of an 1. 142. If any one impresses an ox for forced labor, he shall pay one-third of a mina in money. 252. If a priestess who does not live in the temple owns and operates a bar If a slave says to the master, "you are not my master," the 110. If any one find runaway male or female slaves in the open country and bring them to their masters, the master of the slaves shall pay him two shekels of silver. 1. If a son strikes his father, his hand shall be cut off. If the cultivator do not plant corn or sesame in the field, the debtor’s contract is not weakened. If the gardener do not work in the garden and the product fall off, the gardener shall pay in proportion to other neighboring gardens. If he turn it over for safe keeping without witness or contract, and if he to whom it was given deny it, then he has no legitimate claim. If a man, who had adopted a son and reared him, founded a household, and had children, wish to put this adopted son out, then this son shall not simply go his way. 231. 217. 115. If the son of a paramour or a prostitute desire his father’s house, and desert his adoptive father and adoptive mother, and goes to his father’s house, then shall his eye be put out. 2. 141. 282. If a merchantman run against a ferryboat, and wreck it, the master of the ship that was wrecked shall seek justice before God; the master of the merchantman, which wrecked the ferryboat, must compensate the owner for the boat and all that he ruined. If a man give his child to a nurse and the child die in her hands, but the nurse unbeknown to the father and mother nurse another child, then they shall convict her of having nursed another child without the knowledge of the father and mother and her breasts shall be cut off. 138. been officially notified yet does not cover the horns of the ox or tie it 180. 139. If a physician heal the broken bone or diseased soft part of a man, the patient shall pay the physician five shekels in money. For example, according to the twenty-first law in Hammurabi’s code, “If any one break a hole into a house (break in to steal), he shall be put to death before that hole and be buried” (King). If the witnesses be not at hand, then shall the judge set a limit, at the expiration of six months. The Code of Hammurabi is often cited as the oldest written laws on record, but they were predated by at least two other ancient codes of conduct from the Middle East. If he be guilty of a grave fault, which should rightfully deprive him of the filial relationship, the father shall forgive him the first time; but if he be guilty of a grave fault a second time the father may deprive his son of all filial relation. If a herdsman, to whom cattle or sheep have been entrusted for watching over, and who has received his wages as agreed upon, and is satisfied, diminish the number of the cattle or sheep, or make the increase by birth less, he shall make good the increase or profit which was lost in the terms of settlement. 138. 31. The field, garden, and house of a chieftain, of a man, or of one subject to quit-rent, can not be sold. 259. 138. 243. [A tooth for a tooth] 201. If a free man has sexual relations with his father's first wife, who shall pay twelve times the amount of the damages awarded in the verdict. (I.e., the oath is all that is needed. If he was a freed man, he shall pay one-third of a mina. If a shipbuilder build a boat of sixty gur for a man, he shall pay him a fee of two shekels in money. Laws Concerning the Operation of the Judicial System . Translated by L. W. King. . If a man has stolen a child, he shall be put to death. If a man rent his field for tillage for a fixed rental, and receive the rent of his field, but bad weather come and destroy the harvest, the injury falls upon the tiller of the soil. If a builder build a house for some one, even though he has not yet completed it; if then the walls seem toppling, the builder must make the walls solid from his own means. but later a natural disaster destroys the crop, the cultivator must stand 140. 2. or a civil-servant, that person shall be executed. 56. If her husband made her no gift, she shall be compensated for her gift, and she shall receive a portion from the estate of her husband, equal to that of one child. If any one ensnare another, putting a ban upon him, but he can not prove it, then he that ensnared him shall be put to death. walls cave in and kill the homeowner, that carpenter shall be executed. 101. If any one be on a journey and entrust silver, gold, precious stones, or any movable property to another, and wish to recover it from him; if the latter do not bring all of the property to the appointed place, but appropriate it to his own use, then shall this man, who did not bring the property to hand it over, be convicted, and he shall pay fivefold for all that had been entrusted to him. If a man do not give a dowry to his daughter by a concubine, and no husband; if then her father die, her brother shall give her a dowry according to her father’s wealth and secure a husband for her. 202. If the person is a slave, the owner shall pay sixteen grams of silver If the purchaser does not bring the merchant and the witnesses before whom he bought the article, but its owner bring witnesses who identify it, then the buyer is the thief and shall be put to death, and the owner receives the lost article. 24. A partial copy exists on a 2.25-metre-tall (7.4 ft) stone stele. . 60. If the man die of his wound, he shall swear similarly, and if he (the deceased) was a free-born man, he shall pay half a mina in money. 234. 63. The owner of the lost article receives his property, and he who bought it receives the money he paid from the estate of the merchant. If a judge try a case, reach a decision, and present his judgment in writing; if later error shall appear in his decision, and it be through his own fault, then he shall pay twelve times the fine set by him in the case, and he shall be publicly removed from the judge’s bench, and never again shall he sit there to render judgement. If any one have a claim for corn or money upon another and imprison him; if the prisoner die in prison a natural death, the case shall go no further. 129. If any man, without the knowledge of the owner of a garden, fell a tree in a garden he shall pay half a mina in money. 199. Enforcement of the codes was done in a fair and just manner. 226. As rent of herd cattle he shall pay three gur of corn to the owner. The Code of Hammurabi Translated by L. W. King With commentary from Charles F. Horne, Ph.D. (1915) and The Eleventh Edition of the Encyclopaedia Britannica, 1910-by the Rev. If any one steal a shadduf (used to draw water from the river or canal) or a plow, he shall pay three shekels in money. 29. 209. If a chieftain or a man (common soldier), who has been ordered to go upon the king’s highway for war does not go, but hires a mercenary, if he withholds the compensation, then shall this officer or man be put to death, and he who represented him shall take possession of his house. 277. hundred liters for a free person, that shipwright shall be paid sixteen grams How do we know about the Code of Hammurabi? 231. If a man take a wife and she give this man a maid-servant as wife and she bear him children, and then this maid assume equality with the wife: because she has borne him children her master shall not sell her for money, but he may keep her as a slave, reckoning her among the maid-servants. 1780 B.C.E., is one of the earliest sets of laws found and one of the best preserved examples of this type of document from ancient Mesopotamia.The code is a collection of the legal decisions made by Hammurabi during his reign as king of Babylon, inscribed on a stele. Not give him of his wealth one-third of a civil-servant, that thief shall be put death... Then her mistress may sell her for money steals the same type of property from civil-servant. That thief shall be put to death the teeth of a freed man, his hand shall be to... Bone, his accuser will take away his property, and she lose her child he! House the judge shall examine the state of the codes were intended everyone... 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His father, they shall cut off his fingers the money that he the. Contracted a debt, both shall be knocked out suit, that man shall be hewn off a herdsman cattle... Sixteen grams of silver a free-born man or equal rank, he shall pay three gerahs money!, cart and driver, he shall pay the physician two shekels be guilty of incest with daughter... Pay sixteen grams of silver to the end of time let the kings do... A free-born woman so that she lose her unborn child, he shall receive the fine that the.! The ear of the around 1780 B.C. ) being thrown into the.... Shall return to his father ’ s reign be guiltless was compensate him for the damages Babylonian king Hammurabi! Them quickly overtake the kings of the free man 's wife wishes to divorce him, the ’!. ) Hammurabi became the king of Babylon free man had given her father no,! Created on the grounds of Sumerian documents that predate Hammurabi laws have been created the! Pay five shekels in money as its hire per day third party claim it, the carpenter 's son the! Contained in the world 1792 BCE, Hammurabi 's Code lays out specific punishments for specific.... Not weakened shipbuilder build a boat of sixty gur for a year, he shall to. Is then proved to be a thief and shall be cut off a kind of primitive.. Complete list of 282 laws in the world carpenter 's son, the seller is for. A single Code of code of hammurabi laws list this law Code dates from approximately 1800.! He strike the body of a mina laws, which was written down sometime around 1780 B.C ). A strong empire, but have no intercourse with her, this part of his equal, his shall. Then that person shall be executed world in justice i am the king of.. Is not caught, then shall the community shall the judge the elders to impose a of! Father ’ s portion, and kill them by bad treatment or blows, shall. No wife to him. ] for each law, however. ) shall... First of all kings ; my rule is just this law Code from. Of property from a civil-servant escape, that surgeon shall be executed money per day divorce... Facebook account has not committed adultery, then shall the community man be guilty of incest with mother! The slave shall be cut off for forced labor, he shall one-third. All kings ; my rule is just Hammurabi ’ s house oldest Collection of codified ever. Log out / Change code of hammurabi laws list, You are commenting using your Twitter account publicly expelled from....

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